China's state-run Catholic Church has stripped a bishop of his title, five months after he announced he was quitting the Church's oversight body.
Thaddeus Ma Daqin, an auxiliary bishop in Shanghai, announced his resignation from China's Patriotic Catholic Association (CPCA) after his ordination in July.
Reports at the time said he had been detained in a seminary near Shanghai.
There has been longstanding tension between Beijing and the Vatican.
Rome, which approved the appointment of Bishop Ma, does not recognise the CPCA, which in turn rejects the Pope's authority. Both claim the exclusive right to appoint bishops.
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